Glossary of Terms

The following is a list of terms commonly used during the design and construction of a project.

Administrative Expense - An expense included in the project budget that is incurred by the District for the administration of the project. Typical expenses may include printing, soils investigation and topographic survey.

Advertisements - The cost to publish legal public notices, such as advertisements soliciting bids or notices of final payment (usually published in newspapers of general circulation), to conform to legal requirements pertaining to the project.  ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) - The body of civil rights laws protecting individuals with disabilities in full participation of their lives, include work, housing, social and education.  New construction, whether a new facility or an addition to an existing building, must be readily accessible to disabled persons. Alterations, other than routine maintenance, in any section of a facility that affects the use of that section must be brought up to design requirements to be readily accessible to disabled persons.

Architect’s Fee - Payment for professional architectural services rendered to the District.  Services include programming, schematic design development, preparation of the contract documents, and contract administration during construction and final acceptance of the project.

Beneficial Occupancy - Similar to substantial completion, beneficial occupancy is when a project, or any portion of a project, is certified as complete and ready for occupancy and its intended use.

Bid - A complete and properly signed proposal to furnish all labor, equipment, and materials,  and to perform the specified work within the prescribed time for a suggested amount.

Bidder - A licensed contractor who submits a bid for a contract with the District.

Bid Package - Synonymous with Project, one or more deficiencies grouped together so that a bidder can submit one bid for the group and have just one contract with the District.

Bond Issuance - Issue of general obligation bonds during the course of the program.

Building Code - The regulations, ordinances, or statutory requirements relating to building construction and occupancy, adopted and administered for the protection of the public health, safety and welfare.

Building Permit - See Permit Expenses

Capital Improvements - New construction, whether those improvements are an addition to an existing building or a brand new school, and renovation that includes modification to the existing structure that changes the function or size of a space.

Capital Renewal - Construction that includes the replacement of existing building finishes or systems; e.g. carpet, paint, electrical, heating, cooling, etc.

Change Order (CO) - A written order that changes the terms and/or conditions of the executed contract between the District and contractor. The District must authorize the change order, which may include an adjustment to the dollar amount and duration of the construction contract.

Construction Budget - The sum established by the District as available for construction of a project, including contingency for changes that may occur during construction. The actual cost of construction will depend on the lowest qualified bid price acceptable to the District. The Construction Budget includes:

Demolition Costs - The costs to deliberately destroy a building(s), or portion of a building, and/or sitework necessary to perform improvements.

Site Development Costs - The cost of construction necessary to improve the site prior to the start of construction.

Site Improvement Costs - The cost of construction to be performed outside the building(s) as part of the project, such as landscaping, utilities, storm drainage, and parking.

Utility Consumption - The cost associated with a contractor’s utility consumption during construction.

Construction Documents - Refer to the Design and Construction Phases of a Project section of this Document.

Contingency:
Bid Contingency - An amount, usually based on a percentage of the construction budget, designated to cover the difference between the budgeted construction amount and a higher than anticipated responsive and responsible low bid.

Construction Contingency - An amount, usually based on a percentage of the construction budget, designated to cover unpredictable or unforeseen items of work, or changes directed by the District.

Contractor (General Contractor, Construction Contractor, Prime Contractor, Construction Manager/General Contractor or Construction Manager at Risk) - A company that has a direct contract with the District to perform the construction of a project.

Cleaning (Final) - After a contractor does the final construction clean as required by the contract documents, an extensive, final cleaning of a new building or addition prior to opening of school. For example, a contractor may “broom clean” the floors while the District’s final clean includes wax removal and re-waxing of the floor.

Design Phases - Refer to the Design and Construction Phases of a Project section of this Document.

Design Subconsultant - A person or firm who provides professional advice or services to the project architect. A project architect usually requires the expertise of subconsultants for various design disciplines, such as structural, civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering.

Document Reproduction - The cost to reproduce design documents for review and bid documents for contractors to prepare their bid. An administrative expense associated with the project.

Educational Specifications (EdSpec) Committee - Refer to the Educational Specifications section of this handbook.  Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment (FF&E) - Moveable items; e.g. chairs, tables, desks,  bookcases, computers inside and outside the school. These items are separate and distinct from fixtures that are built into the facility.

Hazardous Materials Abatement - The design, abatement and monitoring of hazardous materials, such as asbestos, lead paint, radon, etc., in a location where construction is to occur.  Abatement must meet strict federal, state and local requirements, adhere to the District’s specifications and be performed by contractors whose qualifications have been certified by the State. Abatement occurs prior to construction so as not to delay construction. Professional abatement contractors will abate hazardous materials incidentally discovered during construction.

Inspection - The examination of work completed or in progress to determine its compliance with contract and code requirements. Inspections are completed by a third party firm or inspection agency.

Interim Housing - Temporary space or facility for students and staff who must be relocated in order for construction to occur in a section of a facility.

Land Acquisition Cost - Costs to acquire property for new construction. Considered and tracked separately from construction costs.

Legal Counsel - The District’s occasional legal advice or guidance, or such tasks as reviewing and preparing standard contract documents that will be used on all contracts; e.g. standard architect agreement, standard engineer agreement, standard construction contract agreement.

Maintenance - Deferred Maintenance is the repair or replacement of equipment that is not a part of routine maintenance and/or not done at the end of a building component’s life cycle typically prematurely due to lack of funding and resources. Routine maintenance is the dayto-day activities and periodic tasks that keep a facility in usable condition for the purposes intended.

Maintenance Training and Demonstration - Prior to the turnover of a construction project there is training for District maintenance and custodial personnel on new systems and equipment to ensure effective maintenance and operations.

Materials Testing - Examining and measuring the quality of materials periodically throughout the course of a project for their compliance with contract requirements and specifications.

Milestone Activity - An important date, usually the beginning or completion, of a significant phase of construction activity.

Miscellaneous Permits - Refer to Permit Expenses.

Moving - Labor and expenses associated with moving furniture and materials from, and to,  existing spaces, or relocating furniture and materials to new spaces in order to accommodate construction. Moving may involve additional custodial and teacher labor, and/or professional moving crews, and may also involve additional storage space.

Non-construction Costs - Expenses, such as the architect’s fee and permits, included in the project budget that are not part of the construction budget.

Owner’s Representative - The person designated as the District’s official representative in connection with the bond program. Mark Warneke, the Director of Building and Grounds is the Owner’s Representative.  

Permit Expenses - Costs to the District for all permits associated with the construction of a project. Includes the following:

Building Permit - Issued by the City of Omaha allowing construction of a project in accordance with approved drawings and specifications.

Plan Check Fee - The cost to the District for the City of Omaha to review the plans and specifications to ensure they are in conformance with building codes. Often the plan check fees are combined with the building permit fees.

Miscellaneous Permits - The cost to the District for various permits such as wastewater management.

Pre-qualification - A process by which the District evaluates a consultant or contractor based on objective criteria and determined whether they meet the minimum requirement needed to submit a proposal or bid on a particular project.

Printing (or document reproduction) - The cost to print, copy and otherwise reproduce drawings and documents associated with a project and/or the program.  

Program Manager (PgM) - The team of individuals who manages more than one project that is combined into a program. Jacobs has been selected as the Program Manager to manage the scope, budget and schedule of the 2014 Bond Program.

Programming - Refer to the Design and Construction Phases of a Project section of this Document.

Project Management Control System (PMCS) - An enterprise-wide program and project management application that is used for capturing and managing project information; e.g.  project budget, project expenditures, design issues, construction requests for information, change requests. The PMCS is available via the Internet and accessible to all parties associated with a project: the District, PM, design team, and contractor, which allows collaboration across the life of the project.

Project - The total construction designed by the project architect and performed by the contractor.

Project Architect - The person designated to manage an architectural firm’s services related to a project, including technical and administrative responsibilities.

Project Manager (PM) -The person designated by the PgM to oversee the entire project scope, budget and schedule.

Public Communications - Materials and approaches used to regularly inform staff, students,  parents and the community of progress and success stories.

Public Services Fees - Costs paid to Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) for their services required to upgrade electrical services.

Request for Information (RFI) - A written request for information, complete with appropriate specifications, drawings and details, usually from the contractor to the project architect. A systematic RFI process provides control of the collection, review and resolution of questions during construction.

Request for Proposal (RFP) - Based upon the District’s evaluations of the Statement of Qualifications submitted by consulting firms, a RFP is sent to a “shortlist” of qualified firms to provide more in-depth and detailed information on their qualifications to perform professional services for a specific project. Based upon evaluations of the proposals, the District determines a “shortlist” of firms to interview. Per District procedures for projects over $1 million in construction value, a minimum of 3 firms will be shortlisted to issue an invitation to interview. For projects under $1 million in construction value the District can select a consultant based on evaluating the project specific proposals.

Request for Qualifications (RFQ) and Statement of Qualifications (SOQ) - The District issues a written request and/or advertisement for consulting firms to submit their technical and professional qualifications necessary for satisfactory performance on any project. The District evaluates each firm’s general SOQ to determine which firms should be selected (shortlisted) to submit a more detailed project specific proposal. Per District procedures a minimum of 5 firms will be issued an RFP based on the SOQ evaluations.

Schematic Design - Refer to the Design and Construction Phases of a Project section of this Document.

Schedule, Master Program - The sequence and duration of all projects in the bond program.  A graph showing each project as a single bar based on start (project architect selection) and completion (project close-out) dates.

Schedule, Project - The sequence and duration of the main design and construction activities required to complete a project.

Scope of Work - Refer to Project Definition.

Site Development Costs - Refer to Construction Budget Definition.

Site Improvement Costs - Refer to Construction Budget Definition.

Site (or Topographic Survey) - A survey conducted to establish the physical details of the surface on which the project will be constructed, such as elevation, slope, configuration and existing structures.
Soils Investigation - Soils borings and sampling program, together with the associated laboratory tests, necessary to establish subsurface characteristics likely to influence the design and the project.

Specifications - The component of the project that identifies the requirements for materials, equipment, construction systems, standards and workmanship associated with the construction of the project. Specifications are developed by the architect and are part of the District’s contract with the Contractor.

Statement of Qualifications (SOQ) - Refer to Request for Qualifications.

Subconsultant - A company that has direct contract with a project architect or engineer to perform any portion of the design of the project.

Subcontractor - A company that has a direct contract with a general contractor or CM@R to perform any portion of the construction project.

Technology - All equipment and materials, such as computers, printers, switches, wireless access points (WAP), etc. related to technology in the schools.

Water Tap - Either connection of a public service water supply line with a branch line to serve
a particular building, or the increase in size of the existing line.